I am running into the Goldreich Levin Theorem.

According to what I know a predicate $h: \{ 0,1 \}^* \to \{ 0,1 \} $ is a hardcore predicate for a function $f: \{ 0,1 \}^* \to \{ 0,1 \}^* $ if:

  1. $h$ is deterministic and efficiently computable
  2. It's hard to find $h(x)$ given $f(x)$ for any probabilistic time adversary

The Goldreich Levin Theorem states that a hardcore predicate can be found given any OWF

According to Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard-core_predicate) and every other research paper that I found (ie. https://www3.cs.stonybrook.edu/~omkant/S06.pdf) this hardcore predicate is generated as follows:

"Let $f$ be a OWF (OWP). We defined the function $g(x, r) = (f(x), r)$ where, $|x| = |r|$. It is not hard to see that g is also a OWF (OWP). The Goldreich-Levin Theorem proves that $h(x, r) =< x, r >$ is a hard core predicate for $g$."

I don't really understand the $<x, r>$ notation, in Wikipedia I found that <> stands for inner product / XOR. But according to the definition above, a hardcore predicate $h: \{ 0,1 \}^* \to \{ 0,1 \} $ for a function $f: \{ 0,1 \}^* \to \{ 0,1 \}^* $ is supposed to be a decission problem (0/1) whereas in this definition $|h(x)| > 1$, actually it should be $|h(x)| = |x| = |r| = |x \oplus r|$


I have found this question in the forum about the notation What Does This Symbol Mean? (Hardcore Predicates for One-Way Functions) but it still doesn't solve my question about the output size of the hardcore predicate


1 Answer 1


I just found out the answer, the notation $<>$ stands indeed for the inner product, which is defined as follows for binary strings:

$h(x, r) = <x, r> = \sum x_{i}r_{i} \mod 2$

Here's an example: $x=1101, r=1101 $

$h(x, r) = <x, r> = \sum x_{i}r_{i}\mod 2 = 1*1+1*1+0*0+1*1 \mod 2 = 3 \mod 2 = 1$

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Your answer is correct. You can accept it. $\endgroup$
    – kodlu
    Commented Feb 27, 2023 at 20:55

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