# How does big Galois groups yield better security in NTRU Prime?

I'm still kinda new to Galois theory so I apologize if this question is very obvious to some people.

Basically I'm reading this paper by the NTRU Prime team and in section 2.5 it's explaining how cyclotomic fields should be replaced with prime degree fields with "big Galois group", namely because how structures within cyclotomic fields (e.g. subfields and automorphism) can potentially lead to an attack in the future, it then states "Fields with big Galois groups are far from having automorphisms". Is it true to assume this means that if a field's Galois closure is big (i.e. its Galois closure has a lot of automorphisms), then the field itself would have very few automorphisms, thus less structure to work with when developing an attack?

It also goes on to state how NTRU Prime field has a Galois group of size p!, whereas NTRU field's has size p-1. How exactly does the size of the Galois group correlate to security of the KEM?

1. cyclotomics have very small galois groups (the $$n$$th cyclotomic has galois group $$(\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z})^\times$$ I believe, compared to $$S_n$$ for a random polynomial)
This is compounded by the following fact. The initial worry was that picking the polynomial $$f$$ improperly such that arithmetic is defined over $$\mathbb{Z}_q[x]/(f)$$ could lead to attacks. There has been a line of work provably addressing this concern that goes by the name of "Middle Product LWE". The idea is that one can define a product operation on $$\mathbb{Z}_q[x]$$ such that, for an exponentially large family of $$\{f_i\}_i$$, if RLWE is hard for any of the rings $$\mathbb{Z}_q[x]/(f_i)$$, then Middle Product LWE is secure. See this for a sample paper on the topic. So if you are concerned that power-of-two cyclotomics are plausibly weak, it is perhaps better to move to Middle Product LWE instantiations, rather than pick another $$f_i$$ out of a hat and hope it is strong.