For any competently design cryptosystem the answer is no.
The attacker knowing the plain-text that corresponds to a particular cipher-text does not leak any information about the key (with very high probability).
In fact, even if the attacker can choose the plain-texts you encrypt and obtains the ciphertexts for those, he still shouldn't be able to learn any information about the key.
You can go even further than this again. Say the attacker has a cipher-text $c_0$ that he wants the decryption for. You give the attacker the ability to obtain the encryption of any message of his choice message and to execute the decryption process on any cipher-text of his choice (except $c_0$ of course). Even with this much power, he still shouldn't learn anything about the key or the plain-text message that $c_0$ decrypts to.
So in summary, yes, the attack you mentioned has been catered for all in modern cryptosystems. In fact, cryptographers design schemes that are secure even when the attacker has almost unrealistic/supernatural power.