To construct a secure multiparty computation function, we need to use the cyclic group G = Z*p^2 with p is a large prime. However, we are uncertain that DDH holds over this group.

Can you show that DDH holds/doesn't hold over the cyclic group Z*p^2?

Note that: the order of G is q = p(p-1) and q is multiple of the large prime p.

Thank you very much!

  • $\begingroup$ Am I correct in assuming that this is a homework assignment or something similar? If so, please provide an indication of what you are not understanding / need clarification on and your attempts at solving it, so we have a clear indication of where you are stuck. Questions just asking for a solution to a homework exercise are considered off-topic here. Thanks. $\endgroup$ Jun 2, 2018 at 21:28
  • $\begingroup$ This is not my homework assignment. It is an important problem in my research in Secure multiparty computation area. So please do not close this topic. I need to be supported by the experts! $\endgroup$
    – HienVD
    Jun 3, 2018 at 3:19
  • $\begingroup$ That's very interesting. Could you describe your research in more detail? $\endgroup$ Jun 3, 2018 at 12:03
  • $\begingroup$ I'm trying to construct a SMC protocol to efficiently compute the secure sum of n-parties. If this protocol is successfully built, then numerous of application problems are solved (e.g. privacy-preserving linear and logistic regression). $\endgroup$
    – HienVD
    Jun 3, 2018 at 14:32

1 Answer 1


I would say that DDH does not hold in $Z^*_{p^2}$.

Let's first consider DDH in $Z^*_{p}$. We know DDH is not hard because given a DDH tuple $(g^a,g^b,g^c)$, one can compute the Legendre symbols $(L(g^a),L(g^b),L(g^c))$, and know whether they are quadratic residues or not. If any of $(g^a,g^b)$ is a residue but $g^c$ is not, then we know $c\ne ab$.

It has also shown by Gauss that a number co-prime to an odd prime $p$ is a residue modulo any power of $p$ if and only if it is a residue modulo $p$. Thus the above can be extended to $Z^*_{p^2}$.


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