$G$ is a multiplicative cyclic group of a large prime order $p$ and $g$ is a generator of $G$

  • Theorem 1: Given $g^{b^{-1}}$ and $ab$, it's hard to compute $a$ or $b$, where $a$ and $b$ are randomly picked in $Z_p$
  • Theorem 2: It's hard to distinguish between the following distributions: $(g^{b^{-1}},ab)$ and $(g^{b^{-1}},z)$ where $a$, $b$, and $z$ are randomly picked in $Z_p$
Is there any proof that these two theorems hold or do not hold?
  • $\begingroup$ Theorem 2 holds trivially. Those distributions are identical. $\endgroup$
    – Maeher
    Jul 13, 2020 at 18:32
  • $\begingroup$ Is this homework? Note that $b^{-1}$ calculated with $\varphi(p)$. So you can consider it as $x$. $\endgroup$
    – kelalaka
    Jul 13, 2020 at 19:25

1 Answer 1


Theorem 1 is not true in general; consider a group where the discrete log problem is easy. On the other hand, it is true if we assume that the discrete log problem in $G$ is hard (that is, if we can recover either $a$ or $b$ given $g^{b^{-1}}, ab$, then we can use that as an Oracle to recover $x$ given $g^x$)

Theorem 2 is true; for any $b \ne 0$ (and we know $b \ne 0$ if $b^{-1}$ exists), the distributions of $ab$ and $z$ (for random $a, z$) are identical (and hence "hard to distinguish").


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