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First, normally a message authentication function (e.g. HMAC) is used with AES-CBC, specifically to prevent the type of attack described in this question, where the ciphertext is altered by an attacker in an attempt to produce a ‘wanted plaintext’ upon decryption. See When do I need to use CBC and HMAC? for more info. Also, the ciphertext that you posted is ...


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At a high level, the Digest Algorithm would specify what algo is used to calculate the HASH eg: MD5, SHA1, SHA256, SHA384 etc. The Signature Algorithm would specify what signing algorithm is to be used eg: ECDSA, RSA etc. However, in most cases the DigestAlgorithm is tightly related to the Signature Algorithm so there may be duplicated information eg: the ...


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Padding You cannot fill the remaining blocks with the null bytes unless The message has a fixed size that doesn't require sending file sizes. The file size is sent over the channel. The message doesn't contain null-bytes. In the general, the padding must be unambiguous. 10..0 padding can be fine. if data is 1234567890000000 now the data is 123456789 or ...


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