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Practically, when RSA is used to encrypt strings, what is the $x$ in $x^e\bmod n$? That depends on the variant of RSA. Among the most common: Toy-sized textbook RSA, where the public modulus $n$ is small: it is customary to encrypt letter by letter (or pair of letters, as in the original RSA article's small example) and concatenate the RSA cryptograms. ...


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Composed the answer I was looking for from the different comments in response to the question Input is considered as an array of bytes/octets (8 bit). k is the octet length of the RSA modulus (n) Maximum number of octets which can be encrypted with RSA is k - 11 The array of octets after padding is considered to be a Big Integer - x The Big Integer x is ...


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According to RFC 2437... RSAES-OAEP can operate on messages of length up to $k-2-2\cdot hLen$ octets, where $hLen$ is the length of the hash function output for EME-OAEP and $k$ is the length in octets of the recipient's RSA modulus. The padding string $\text{PS}$ in EME-PKCS1-v1_5 is at least eight octets long, which is a security condition for public-key ...


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