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Multivariate cryptographic schemes that perform digital signatures like HFEv, FLASH and Quartz have something in common. As opposed to enciphering data like in a normal cryptosystem where a public multivariate polynomial $P(X)$ is given as: $$P(X) = P(p_1(x_1,\ldots,x_n),\ldots,p_n(x_1,\ldots,x_n))$$ You input the plaintext bits $x=(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ into $...


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scrypt scrypt is actually a password-based key derivation function (PBKDF *) created by Colin Percival; Stronger Key Derivation via Sequential Memory-Hard Functions. We want slower PBKDF functions since it will slow the attack times. The below is from hashcat performance; scrpyt 1172.8 kH/s (16.61ms) PBKDF2-HMAC-MD5 ...


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With Elliptic Curves, we can compute the order of any point (and, in particular, the point $nP$; this is especially easy on the curves we actually use for ECC, because those curves typically have an order $hq$, for a small $h$ and a large prime $q$ (and the order of any point is a divisor of $hq$). So, if $q$ is the order of the point $nP$, and if $n$ is ...


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There is the idea of a fuzzy vault, a coding theory based idea first proposed by Juels, developed for biometric applications, it warrants a look. Start at Wikipedia. These notes below are excellent: https://wiki.cse.buffalo.edu/cse545/content/fuzzy-vault


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Actually, lecturers/professors build simplified version of block ciphers and hash functions so that the students can understand better. For Block ciphers there are; Simplified DES by Edward Schaefer in 96. You can also set it in Stinson's book Appendix G. Simplified AES is first appeared on Cryptologia, 2003 by Musa, Schaefer, and Wedig. Another ...


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