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What is a ciphering key?

A cipher is defined for cryptography as "A cryptographic system using an algorithm that converts letters or sequences of bits into ciphertext." Now it seems that the origin of the term ...
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What is an output symbol?

What is an output symbol ? An output symbol is the base "unit" of output of a PRNG. The keystream itself is composed of an integer number of symbols. If the PRNG outputs bits (like an LFSR),...
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is Client Puzzle a challenge-response variant of Proof-of-work?

Yes, client puzzles as outlined by Joel’s and Brainard are an example of a challenge-and-response proof-of-work protocol. A difference from proof-of-work usage in distributed ledger updates is that ...
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